A lawsuit is a file submitted at the level of trial. A trial goes on in front of the judge or jury. The defendant may ask for a speedy trial in case of criminal proceedings, however there is no such right in civil proceedings.
Due to which the civil cases go on for several years. Most of the litigations never reach a courtroom. Concerned parties may agree on a settlement, petitioners might be removed from the case or suit, or a judge can dismiss the case before the trial.
A trial involves the jury, judge, lawyers, evidences and the two opposing parties involved in the case. During the court proceeding, the jury takes into account the questions of truth like "Did Mr. Peterson kill his friend?", "Was the car collision a mishap?", "Was ABC firm inattentive in producing baby products?".
The jury is responsible for making a decision from such deductive questions. The jury only considers the evidences that are presented in the court. During the proceedings, the judge has to address questions related to the law.
When the parties put forth their arguments, the judge makes a decision on questions of law. In order to make their decision, judges usually refer to the earlier case and the related system of civil and criminal procedure. After the end of the trail, the defeated party may challenge or appeal the verdict in an appellate court. In the appellate court, the questions of law are reviewed, and not the jury's or the judge's rulings on the facts.
In the appellate court, basically both parties are heard if the proceedings were carried out appropriately. In case, the appellate court found that the trial court's did not implement the questions of law properly, then it overturns the trial court's verdict. It may ask the lower court to review the case in shadow of the appellate court's opinion. Generally, a remand follows the reversal. Appellate courts are not well known, however the decision of the appellate court is very important not only for the parties but also for future trials.